Tuesday, May 26, 2020
Law of Life Essay Samples - Make Your Essay One of the Best EverIf you are an aspiring writer, you might have come across the same word in any number of law of life essay samples. Though every writer and student of writing literature have their own different set of rules and points to impress on, you can now clearly pick up from these samples the best things about writing and the best qualities to emphasize. Read on to learn how to pick these up for maximum success in the course of writing.When it comes to discussing writing, everything else except the means of gathering and putting down information should be made a part of your essay as well. If you are just focusing on one of these aspects alone, you are missing out on something that has tremendous bearing on your other abilities and strengths. The example of the law of life gives us the best point in that these writers have realized that all that matters is the ability to bring it all together in the way that readers find most app ealing. It does not matter how many and what kinds of factors are there to the competition or the writers competing with you. In an example, even if you were to write the exact same exact words, it would be useless if readers did not find them what they wanted and needed.The better your work, the more valuable and important matters it makes. Remember, not everything can be a part of your work. Only the one of the most important matters will stand out and help you on your way to being a better writer and a better reader.When choosing to write this sample, you can emphasize every aspect that makes it special. This not only applies to the use of free writing advice, but to the very substance of the law of life essay sample. Read it, make notes and then select one of your greatest strengths and work on it. If you have mastered it, be confident in speaking it.The law of life, or more specifically, the necessity of living, is part of every different law in the English language. However, o ne of the first parts of this that the law of life essay samples would emphasize is the need to live by virtue of one's work. The emphasis here is on what you are reading in the essay. In the law of life essay samples, it would be very hard to put forth as a step-by-step process for achieving success as an author or writer. There is no right or wrong way, but there is a surefire and sure way to make it through any article by gaining all the knowledge that you have.It does not matter whether you choose to focus on the law of life or any other law, the only things that are important to you are going to be in focus when you read these. You must find the one thing that is driving you to become a better writer and a better reader. There is no question of what kind of knowledge or skill set is needed to achieve what you are aiming for. You need only to have an inner drive to make it through these, even in the sense that you must be able to form a picture of yourself as a professional.Usin g the best law of life essay samples will make you a better writer. It will help you focus on what you need to work on to be a better writer. You must hone in on what is the very most important in all the 'things' that you write. The law of life is a key ingredient in becoming a great writer.
Saturday, May 16, 2020
Introduction Due to an increased demannd for standards and accountability in the early childhood education field, policy makers have increasingly turned to the development of effective professional practice among early childhood educators (ECEs) as the predominant approach in securing better outcomes for children. ECEs have thus found themselves under increased pressure to develop professional practices through professional development which has been demonstrated to have a profound impact on childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s holistic development and their performance prospects in society. This essay will focus on the development of effective professional practice among ECEs. The paper will critically evaluate the importance of developing professional practiceÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Therefore, development of effective professional practice is viewed from the perspective of upgrading the skills and competencies of ECEs to cope with the increased quality demands of schools. Professional develop ment is seen as the key to improving the personal and professional effectiveness skills alongside content and pedagogy of educators (Jensen, 2008). One of the fundamental building blocks of developing effective professional practice is the personal and professional values held by ECEs. According to Newman and Pollnitz (2005), it is important from the onset for ECEs to understand the ethical implications of their work and subsequently agree on underpinning principles or values which would form the basis of their code of ethics. These ethical values and principles are what guide professionals in making decisions, choices or ethical judgments over what course of action to take or to avoid in their profession. These professional values are also expressed in various documents, systems and quality standards for ECEs to guide professional development. For instance, the Early Childhood AustraliaÃ¢â¬â¢s Code of Ethics (2006) sets benchmarks for ECEs to ensure that they uphold high ethical responsibility standards in the care and education ofShow MoreRelatedThe Career Field Of Early Childhood Education1746 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesAccording to Careers in Early Childhood Education, the field of early childhood education deals with teaching and education young children, commonly at a preschool level. Early childhood education appeared as a separate branch of education after several studies were conducted and told us that the time before a child goes to kindergarten are the most important for developing their learning abilities and social skills. Studies were conducted by the Department of Education, and many other governmentRead MoreAutonomy Within The Early Childhood Education Field2646 Words Ã |Ã 11 Pagesthe broad concept and the meaning of autonomy in the early childhood education field. Secondly will critically consider how Montessori and Rousseau explained the concept of autonomy, as well as how they represented the ideas of autonomy theory. Finally, this essay w ill critically consider how the autonomy concepts associate to writer s own childhood, and then will examine writer s own childhood in relation to the context of diverse childhoods, which will combine with two philosophers theoriesRead MoreThe Fields Of Early Childhood Education And Child Development Will Be Introduced780 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesIntroduction In this analysis, evaluation, and synthesis assignment, a research topic related to the fields of early childhood education and child development will be introduced. Two scholarly journal articles were analyzed and synthesized to increase this writerÃ¢â¬â¢s understanding of ongoing practices of reading assessments from 1990 to the present years. It is not known if or to what extent the effectiveness of reading assessment practices has upon accurately scoring studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ overall reading performanceRead MoreUnderstanding The Professional Roles Of Supporting Consultee And Consultant Field Of Early Childhood Education Essay1200 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages Why Program Selected The program I have selected for this assignment on consultations in Early Childhood settings is Sunshine Academy Early Education Center located in Brookline, Massachusetts. Sunshine Academy philosophy focuses on each childÃ¢â¬â¢s unique abilities and potential. Engaging qualified staff with a caring, nurturing, loving and supportive attitude, and to create opportunities for families, and staff to be involved in all aspects of your childÃ¢â¬â¢s care. Diversity of families of everyRead MoreEarly Childhood Education Field Experience1913 Words Ã |Ã 8 Pages One Child Study of Saumya Patel Sumter County Primary School: Early Childhood Education Field Experience Submitted By: DeÃ¢â¬â¢Shun Iverson Introduction to Early Childhood Education 3rd Period Study of Saumya Patel Saumya Patel is 5 years old. He attends Kindergarten at Sumter County Primary School in the Sumter County School System. Saumya is very intelligent, and is very far ahead of many of the students on his level. He is very independent, and he is very capable of doing many thingsRead MoreProfessional Development in Early Childhood Education Essay1320 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagestheir early childhood development are teacher professionals who have a passion and a genuine desire to help them learn, grow and succeed in their education. These are just a few roles that early childhood educators plays in the field of early childhood education for working with young children in their early childhood years of life, which the requirements, most of the time, are to have both a formal education and passing teacher-certification score. The National Association for Education of YoungRead MoreReflection On Early Childhood Education1198 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesthe past eight weeks, my insights on Early Childhood Education have given me a better understanding of issues and trends in Early Childhood Education. As I mastered this course, I have also become more knowledgeable and understanding of the needs of children and families in my community. Another way that I have been strengthened was through discussions and sharing blogs with my colleagues. On the other hand, researching professional early childhood education topics and viewing multimedia presentationsRead MoreCareer Essay : I Am A Nurse936 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesus, they do not know as much as we do. We are the ones who have to teach them what they need to know. With this career comes a lot of skill and schooling and I am beyond ready for what is to come. Being and Early Childhood Teacher has different work options along with it. Ã¢â¬Å"Early childhood teachers function in kindergartens, prekindergartens, or primary grades of public elementary schools as well as in non-public school settings, such as child care centers, Head Start programs, and nursery schoolsÃ¢â¬ Read MoreEssay on Future Career: Early Education Teacher851 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesDepartment of Education, Early Education teacher means Ã¢â¬Å"any professional working in Early Learning and Development Programs, including but not limited to center-based and family child care providers, infant and toddler specialists, early administrators, Head Start teachers, Early Head Start teachers, preschool and other teachers, teacher assistants, family services staff, and health coordinators.Ã¢â¬ Some reason why people want to become an early education teacher persist of good education programs, wages/benefitsRead MoreThe Early Childhood Development Of Australia1269 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesrecent years the early childhood sector in Australia has undergone a number of legislative and organizational changes, which have impacted on the overall structure of service provision in Australia. Initiatives introduced by the federal government have changed the face of childcare from simple Ã¢â¬Ëchild mindingÃ¢â¬â¢ services, to full early childhood educational facilities, offering comprehensive age specific Ã¢â¬Ëhigh qualityÃ¢â¬â¢ educational curriculum, which cover all ages and stages of early childhood development
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
What is computerized system learning? Computerized learning is essentially the usage of a computer based learning assistance program for education. Prior to the onset of technology in the classroom and in higher education, the learning in the classroom started with someone writing on a chalkboard and then posing a question or making a statement, also known as the chalk and talk method. That was the norm. Today that has changed. Technology and Computerized Systems learning has made learning on the university level more convenient and accessible then ever. To begin letÃ¢â¬â¢s start when Ã¢â¬Å"technologyÃ¢â¬ was first getting integrated into the classroom setting. In 1890 the latest and greatest technology was the chalkboard. In 1920s the invention and fascination of the Radio led to an never before used type of learning on- air classes a precursor what we use today with online learning. By the early 1970s a modern day classroom staple Ã¢â¬â the Scantron was making its way i nto schools across America. And finally the computer, which was introduced to classroom in the mid 80s with laptop by Toshiba and AppleÃ¢â¬â¢s PowerBook. By 1993 daily computer usage was reaching a level close to what we see today when the PDA was launched on society by Apple computers. Furthermore until the launch on what became known as Plato in the mid 1970s education had been influenced by Technology but had yet to computerize technology become an integral part of the educational system. Up until this point technologyShow MoreRelatedComputer Technology : A Educational Study1391 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesIn this educational study, an analysis of the Ã¢â¬ futuristic studentÃ¢â¬ will define the increasing importance of computerized education as a way to dictate the needs of the student in the increasing role of information technology (IT) in the 21st contrary. In modern schools, the necessity of computerized education will provide stude4nts of the future with the necessary skill s to participate in jobs related to this field of technology. Computers will become a more central part of educational curriculumsRead MoreCurrent Enrollment System1623 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesEnrollment System: A New Solution System in Southern Luzon State University Judge Guillermo Eleazar S.Y. 2012-2013 A Research Project Presented to the Faculty of Southern Luzon State University Judge Guillermo Eleazar In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Course of Bachelor of Science in Industrial Technology John Franz Louie L. Mendoza Glenn Patrick C. Escasura Jeric F. Dellosa Approval Sheet The research project entitled Ã¢â¬Å"Enrollment System: A new Solution system forRead MoreManual vs Computerized Accounting1225 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesManual versus Computerized Accounting Ever since Lucas Pacioli wrote about and spread the knowledge of double entry accounting in his Ã¢â¬Å"Summa di ArithemeticaÃ¢â¬ in 1494, modern manual accounting was born (Hendrickson, 2007), though manual accounting has existed in many forms since ancient times. In contrast, computerized accounting systems are a more modern invention, as the first computer was invented between 1943 and 1946 (Ã¢â¬Å"Great Events in Accounting amp; Business HistoryÃ¢â¬ , (n.d.)) and ArthurRead MoreThe Health Information Technology For Economic And Clinical Health Act1146 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesPaving the Way to Computerized Charting The passage of the Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health Act (HITECH) Act Ã¢â¬Å"encouraged healthcare organizations and providers to adopt and effectively utilize certified electronic health records (EHRs)Ã¢â¬ (Conrad, Hanson, Hansenau, Stocker-Schneider, 2012, p. 443). In addition, the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) instituted Meaningful Use (MU) as a form of Ã¢â¬Å"incentive programs that governs the use of EHRs and allowRead MoreHuman Resource Systems And Human Resources Essay948 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pages(2015) examined the HR technics, the technologies used in human resources, their present and predicted future impacts on human resource systems. There were numerous sources that were cited in this research. Research mainly focused on existing human resource systemsÃ¢â¬â¢ limitations and possible technology solutions to current problems in traditional and computerized HR methods. Information technology has influenced every single asp ect of our lives. It also has been notably affective on organizationalRead MoreThe Electronic Medical Records ( Emr )1366 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pageshealth care through decreased medical errors, increased preventative care and improved detection and treatment (Fiato, K. A., 2012). The other terms used to describe EMR include hospital information system (HIS), computerized system (CS), and computerized physician order entry system (CPOE). This computerized setting supports the patientÃ¢â¬â¢s EMR across inpatient and outpatient environments and is used by health care providers to manage, monitor, and document health care delivery within a care delivery organizationRead MoreThe Effects Of Simulation On The Nursing Education System1714 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesSimulation is has been adopted in the nursing education system, as a technique to curb common and dangerous occurrences that ensues in the health care system. After graduation and upon gaining employment in a hospital, nurses ought to be familiar with the fast paced and intense hospital setting, while executing various nursing practices, which includes clinical competence, timely decision making, critical thinking, efficient and professional human interaction. They are various form of simulationRead MoreCompu terized Teachers Evaluation System1402 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesCHAPTER I INTRODUCTION With the long history of Chinese civilization and education, formal teacher practice is quite new because for centuryÃ¢â¬â¢s teachersÃ¢â¬â¢ authority and power over their students cannot be challenged. Historically, learning was the major concern of education, but during the past decades, teaching quality has become an added concern of education. There are three reasons for evaluating teachers: to diagnose and help teacher improve teaching, to help students get better teaching qualityRead MoreConstruction Of A Forensic Lab Essay948 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesConstruction of a Forensic Lab As fields like data frameworks and data innovation have developed, the expansion of hands-on exercises to bolster hypothetical information has turned out to be progressively pervasive. An effective data innovation system must show understudies delicate aptitudes, as well as specialized abilities or abilities in comprehension and demonstrating authoritative procedures and information, characterizing and actualizing specialized and handle arrangements, overseeing tasksRead MoreAnnotated Bibliography On Database Management System Essay1014 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesset of related data in many tables and uses links through something called foreign keys. In a Database product you can create and modify several databases. DBMS It stands for Database Management System, it is a concept of rules that all the latest and major database systems follow. So most databases systems follow these rules but some only follow specific rules. To summarize, a database is an organized data collection or information that happens to be easily accessible, changed or updated. A DBMS is
Tuesday, May 5, 2020
Question: Discuss about the Pathophysiology and Pharmacognosy. Answer: Pathophysiology Abscess An abscess is the accumulation of pus cells that is formed within the tissue of the body parts (Rudolph and Koch 2016, p. 215,249). It is known to the reaction that is defensive in nature. It swells and forms boils like structure with filling of some fluid. They are generally caused by the infection by the bacteria. The most common bacteria that creates abscess is Staphylococcus aureus. Cytokines are released as a result of the activity by the bacteria. It collects several numbers of white blood cells and increases the flow of the blood. On spreading the infection, it can lead to the death of the regional tissue and helps in developing swelling, pain and fever with chills. Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Acute lymphoblastic leukemia is also known as blood cancer. It is generally caused due to the overproduction and the accumulation of carcogenic white blood cells, also known as lymphoblasts. It is produced from the bone marrow and can also inhibit the production of the normal cells in the body (Inaba, Greaves, and Mullighan 2013, p. 15-19). Cancer is generally caused by the mutation in the DNA fragments that leads to the uncontrolled cell division Mutation can also caused due to the formation of fusion genes and the dysregulation of proto-oncogene, like T-cell receptor. Leukemia also develops due to the over exposure to radiation. Other factors that can cause acute lymphoblastic leukemia like chemicals, radiations or some drugs. Acute Myeloid Leukemia Acute Myeloid Leukemia is typical type of cancer that is formed from the myloid line of blood cells that is being characterized by the rapid abnormal growth of white blood cells that forms the bone marrow and interferes within the production of normal blood cells (Johansson and Harrison 2015, p. 30-35). Myeloblast is the malignant cell in acuteness of myelid leukemia. Myeloid is an immature form of myeloblast, which develops into a normal white blood cell. This myeloids are being arrested during its development, gets arrested in cell division process, but if any cell fails to get arrested they can lead to the acute myeloid condition. But a single myeloid cell cannot cause cancer alone it gets combined with the other mutation factors that disrupts the genes that controls proliferation, and leads to the uncontrolled growth of the cell followed by AML. Aetiology The term aetiology derived from the Greek term, which means the causes of the disease. The series of the investigations and the causes by which a disease can be differentiated and be recognized is called Aetiology (Osman et al. 2016, p. 389-390). Aetiology can also be stated as the science that focuses with the reasons, origins or some factors that contributes or predispose towards that particular disease Afterload Afterload can be defined as the pressure that is exerted by the walls of the left ventricle during the ejection of the blood. The greater the pressure on the pulmonary valve the more of pressure exerted on the left side of the walls. It is the pressure that the walls of the heart generate for ejection of the blood for circulating throughout the body parts (Mullin et al. 2016, p. 40-45). The increase in pressure also increases the pressure in the walls of the left ventricle of the heart. Afterload also increases the blood pressure and the aortic valve disease. Systemic hypertension increases the afterload of the left ventricular for working more on the the ejection of the blood into the aorta. Pulmonary hypertension increases in the right part of the heart that connects the lungs. This develops the afterload that is dedicated to the right part of the heart which is divided by the intra-ventricular septum. Pharmacognosy Absorption The process by which the atoms or the molecules gets absorbed to any particular substance or gets soaked or being blotted is called absorption (Somani et al. 2014, p. 29-35). In pharmacognosy, absorption refers to the movement of the molecules of a particular drug in the bloodstream. The drug need to be administered by the same route and the dosage need to be remain specific. Drugs can be administered by oral, tropical-dermal etc in the form of tablet, solution or capsule. The mechanism of drug absorption can be of Simple or Passive diffusion, filtration, active transport and facilitated diffusion and pinocytosis. It then moves by the following process to the site of the action. Acidic Drug Acidic drug are the type of drugs which contains the acidic components in it. It is one of the most fundamental for the action of the drugs. They have a proper ionization state that is established in a proper prospective manner of the design (Tripathi et al, 2014, p. 11-15). Acidic drug is required by the human body because to support the digestive system by helping the stomach by giving the support during the process of digestive system. Activase Activase is a medication created by Genentech, a Roche Group member who demonstrated for the treatment of intense Ischemic Stroke. It is being produced by both Genentech and autonomous growth inquire about activities as a treatment for specific sorts of disease with promising yet up 'til now uncertain outcomes. Activase is also considered as the tissue plasminogen activator that is produced by the recombination of DNA. It is produced in a sterile condition, purified glycoprotein of five twenty-seven amino acids. It is also being synthesized using a complementary DNA for the activator of plasminogen for natural human tissue (Phillips, Batlivala and Knudson 2015, p. 1428-1429). The activator of the plasminogen is obtained from the melanoma cell line from the human tissue. It is considered as a sterile and has a lyophillized power for the administration by intravenous in a form of injection mixed with sterile water. Active Transport The movement of the molecules or the ions across the membranes of the cell from the region of the low concentration to the region of high concentration, in against the direction of the gradient by the usage of kinetic energy and the natural entropy of the molecules that is moving against the gradient is known as Active transport (Very et al. 2014, p. 748-750). Active transport is an essential component in the field of pharmacognosy as the drugs that being implemented inside the tissue of the humans, the drugs will need to flow against the normal gradient. Therefore the transport of the drugs from one part of tne body to the other will require kinetic energy. Adaptive Immunity The immunity that is acquired by any individual composed of highly specialized, systemic cells that possesses the elimination of pathogen for the prevention of their growth. It is a sub system of the overall immune system (Iwasaki and Medzhitov 2015, p. 36-39). The cells that take part in the adaptive immune system are the B and the T cell. They are being derived from the specific types of stem cells known as multi-potent hematopoietic stem cell present in the bone marrow. Reference List: Inaba, H., Greaves, M. and Mullighan, C.G., 2013. Acute lymphoblastic leukaemia. The Lancet, 381(9881), pp.1943-1955. Iwasaki, A. and Medzhitov, R., 2015. Control of adaptive immunity by the innate immune system. Nature immunology, 16(4), pp.343-353. Johansson, B. and Harrison, C.J., 2015. Acute myeloid leukemia. Cancer Cytogenetics: Chromosomal and Molecular Genetic Aberrations of Tumor Cells, Fourth Edition, pp.62-125. Mullin, C.J., Tedford, R., Corona-Villalobos, C.P., Zimmerman, S.L., Kamel, I.R., Kolb, T., Damico, R.L., Kass, D.A., Hassoun, P.M. and Mathai, S.C., 2016. Right Ventricular End-Systolic Regional Wall Stress Is Associated With Invasive Measures Of Right Ventricular Afterload. In B96. HUNGRY HEART: RV FUNCTION IN PH (pp. A4303-A4303). American Thoracic Society. Osman, N.I., Chapple, C.R., Abrams, P., Dmochowski, R., Haab, F., Nitti, V., Koelbl, H., van Kerrebroeck, P. and Wein, A.J., 2014. Detrusor underactivity and the underactive bladder: a new clinical entity? A review of current terminology, definitions, epidemiology, aetiology, and diagnosis.European urology,65(2), pp.389-398. Phillips, S.B., Batlivala, S. and Knudson, J.D., 2015. Unusual cause of aborted sudden cardiac death in a teen athlete: homozygosity for the 4G allele of the plasminogen activase inhibitor type 1 gene.Cardiology in the Young,25(07), pp.1428-1430. Rudolf, M. and Koch, H., Aridis Pharmaceuticals, Inc., 2016.Human monoclonal antibody against S. aureus derived alpha-toxin and its use in treating or preventing abscess formation. U.S. Patent 9,249,215. Somani, A.A., Thelen, K., Zheng, S., Trame, M.N., Coboeken, K., Meyer, M., Schnizler, K., Ince, I., Willmann, S. and Schmidt, S., 2014. Evaluation of Changes in Oral Drug Absorption in Preterm Neonates.Clinical Pharmacology in Drug Development,3, p.19. Tripathi, K.D., 2013. Essentials of medical pharmacology. JP Medical Ltd. Vry, A.A., Nieves-Cordones, M., Daly, M., Khan, I., Fizames, C. and Sentenac, H., 2014. Molecular biology of K+ transport across the plant cell membrane: what do we learn from comparison between plant species?.Journal of plant physiology,171(9), pp.748-769.
Wednesday, April 15, 2020
Acupuncture essays Acupuncture is currently being used for a number of medical treatments. It is important to look at the history of acupuncture, how it relates to post stroke patients and what its significance is to the nursing Acupuncture was developed by the ancient Chinese who "felt awe for the sanctity of the human body. The Nei Ching, attributed to the emperor Huang-Ti (2698-2598 BC), contains a reference to a theory of the circulation of the blood and the vital function of the heart that suggests familiarity with anatomy. Accurate location of the proper points for the traditional Chinese practice of acupuncture implies some familiarity with the nervous and vascular systems (Unknown, 2004)." Supporters of acupuncture believe "illness is caused by a disruption in the flow of qi (pronounced chee'), the collection of energies that endow us with our vitality (Boozang, 1998)." It is felt that the energy travels through "different medians that connect certain organs together (Levin, 2003)." The qi, or life force, is restored when "needles are inserted along the meridians at different acupuncture points, where energy travels close to the surface. Once inserted, the needles are then stimulated either manually by turning them, or electrically (Levin, 2003)." In the United States, the main reason acupuncture is performed is for pain relief, however it is also used for "rheumatoid and osteoarthritis, muscle and nerve difficulties', depression, smoking, eating disorders, drug behavior problems', migraine, acne, cancer and constipation (Boozang, 1998)." It is believed that acupuncture can lessen the addictions, as well as "manage disorders of the digestive, respiratory and vascular Since the early 1980's, acupuncture has "become a more acceptable alternative form of medical treatment in the United States. However, much of the information about acupuncture and its abil...
Thursday, March 12, 2020
Gandhi's Salt March of 1930 What Was Gandhis Salt March? The much-publicized, 24-day, 240-mile Salt March began on March 12, 1930, when 61-year-old Mohandas Gandhi led an ever-growing group of followers from the Sabarmati Ashram in Ahmedabad to the Arabian Sea at Dandi, India. Upon arriving at the beach in Dandi on the morning of April 6, 1930, loincloth-clad Gandhi reached down and scooped up a lump of salt and held it high. This was the beginning of a country-wide boycott of the salt tax, imposed upon the people of India by the British Empire. The Salt March, also known as the Dandi March or Salt Satyagraha, became a prime example of the power of GadhisÃ satyagraha, passive resistance, which ultimately led to IndiaÃ¢â¬â¢s independence 17 years later. Why a Salt March? The manufacture of salt in India was a government monopoly established in 1882. Though salt could be obtained from the sea, it was a crime for any Indian to possess salt without having purchased it from the government. This ensured that the government could collect a salt tax. Gandhi proposed that every Indian refuse to pay the tax by making or purchasing illicit salt. Not paying the salt tax would be a form of passive resistance without increasing hardship for the people. Salt, sodium chloride (NaCl), was an important staple in India. Vegetarians, as many Hindus were, needed to add salt to food for their health since they did not get much salt naturally from their food. Salt was often needed for religious ceremonies. Salt also was used for its power to heal, preserve food, disinfect, and embalm. All of this made salt a powerful emblem of resistance. Since everyone needed salt, this would be a cause that Muslims, Hindus, Sikhs, and Christians could all jointly participate in. Landless peasants as well as merchants and landowners would benefit if the tax were lifted.Ã The salt tax was something that every Indian could oppose. British Rule For 250 years, the British had dominated the Indian sub-continent. At first it was the British East India Company that forced its will on the native population, but in 1858, the Company turned over its role to the British Crown. Until independence was granted to India in 1947, Great Britain exploited IndiaÃ¢â¬â¢s resources and imposed an often brutal rule. The British Raj (rule) improved infrastructure to the land, including the introduction of railroads, roads, canals, and bridges, but these were to aid in the export of Indias raw materials, carrying IndiaÃ¢â¬â¢s wealth to the mother country. The influx of British goods into India prevented the establishment of small industries within India. In addition, the British levied heavy taxes on various goods. Overall, England imposed a brutal rule in order to protect its own trade interests. Mohandas Gandhi and the INC wanted to end British rule and bring about IndiaÃ¢â¬â¢s independence. Indian National Congress (INC) The Indian National Congress (INC), founded in 1885, was a body made up of Hindus, Muslims, Sikhs, Parsi, and other minorities. As the largest and most prominent Indian public organization, it was central to the movement for independence. Gandhi served as president in the early 1920s. Under his leadership, the organization expanded, becoming more democratic and eliminating distinctions based on caste, ethnicity, religion, or sex. In December of 1928, the Indian National Congress passed a resolution asking for self-rule within the year. Otherwise, they would demand complete independence and would fight for it with satyagraha, non-violent non-cooperation.Ã By December 31, 1929, the British government had not responded, so action was needed. Gandhi proposed opposing the salt tax. In a Salt March, he and his followers would walk to the sea and make some illegal salt for themselves. This would begin a country-wide boycott, with hundreds of thousands breaking the salt laws by making, gathering, selling, or buying salt without British permission. The key to the struggle was non-violence. Gandhi declared that his followers must not be violent or he would halt the march. A Warning Letter to the Viceroy On March 2, 1930, Gandhi wrote a letter to Viceroy Lord Irwin. Beginning with Ã¢â¬Å"Dear Friend,Ã¢â¬ Gandhi went on to explain why he viewed British rule as a Ã¢â¬Å"curseÃ¢â¬ and outlined some of the more flagrant abuses of the administration. These included obscenely high salaries for British officials, taxes on alcohol and salt, the outlandish land revenue system, and the importation of foreign cloth. Gandhi warned that unless the viceroy was willing to make changes, he was going to begin a massive program of civil disobedience. He added that he wished to convert the British people to nonviolence and thus make them see the wrong they have done to India. The viceroy responded to GandhiÃ¢â¬â¢s letter, but offered no concessions. It was time to prepare for the Salt March. Preparing for the Salt March The first thing needed for the Salt March was a route, so several of GandhiÃ¢â¬â¢s trusted followers planned both their path and their destination. They wanted the Salt March to go through villages where Gandhi could promote sanitation, personal hygiene, abstention from alcohol, as well as the end of child marriages and untouchability. Since hundreds of followers would be marching with Gandhi, he sent an advance team of satyagrahis (followers of satyagraha) to help the villages along the path prepare, making sure that food, sleeping space, and latrines were ready. Reporters from around the world were keeping tabs on the preparations and the walk. When Lord Irwin and his British advisers learned the specifics of the plan, they found the idea ridiculous. They hoped that the movement would die out if it was ignored. They began arresting Gandhis lieutenants, but not Gandhi himself. On the Salt March At 6:30 a.m. on March 12, 1930, Mohandas Gandhi, 61 years old, and 78 dedicated followers began their trek from the Sabarmati Ashram in Ahmedabad. They resolved not to return until India was free of the oppression the British Empire imposed on the people. They wore sandals and clothes made of khadi, cloth woven in India. Each carried a woven bag containing a bedroll, a change of clothes, a journal, a takli for spinning, and a drinking mug. Gandhi had a bamboo staff. Progressing between 10 to 15 miles a day, they walked along dusty roads, through fields and villages, where they were greeted with flowers and cheers. Throngs joined the march until thousands were with him when he reached the Arabian Sea at Dandi. Although Gandhi had prepared for subordinates to continue if he were arrested, his arrest never came. Ã International press was reporting the progress, and had Gandhi been arrested along the way it would have increased the outcry against the Raj. When Gandhi feared the inaction of the government might dim the impact of the Salt March, he urged students to suspend their study and join him. He urged village headsmen and local officials to resign their posts. Some marchers broke down from fatigue, but, despite his age, Mahatma Gandhi stayed strong. Daily on the trek, Gandhi required each marcher to pray, spin, and keep a diary. He continued to write letters and news articles for his papers. At each village, Gandhi collected information about the population, educational opportunities, and land revenue. This gave him facts to report to his readers and to the British about the conditions he witnessed. Gandhi was determined to include untouchables, even washing and eating in their quarters rather than in the places where the high-caste reception committee expected him to stay. In a few villages this caused upset, but in others it was accepted, if somewhat reluctantly. On April 5, Gandhi reached Dandi. Early the following morning Gandhi marched to the sea in the presence of thousands of admirers. He walked down the beach and picked up a lump of natural salt from the mud. The people cheered and shouted Victory! Gandhi called on his companions to start collecting and making salt in an act of civil disobedience. The boycott of the salt tax had begun. The Boycott The boycott of the salt tax swept across the country. Salt was soon made, bought, and sold in hundreds of places across India. People along the coast gathered salt or evaporated sea water to obtain it. People away from the coast bought salt from illegal vendors. The boycott expanded when women, with Gandhis blessing, began picketing foreign cloth distributors and liquor shops. Violence broke out in a number of places, including Calcutta and Karachi, when police tried to stop the lawbreakers. Thousands of arrests were made but, surprisingly, Gandhi remained free. On May 4, 1930, Gandhi wrote another letter to Viceroy Irwin describing his plan for followers to seize the salt at the Salt Works in Dharasana.Ã However, before the letter could be posted, Gandhi was arrested early the next morning. Despite GandhiÃ¢â¬â¢s arrest, the action was to continue with an alternate leader. At Dharasana on May 21, 1930, approximately 2,500 satyagrahis peacefully approached the Salt Works, but were brutally attacked by the British. Without even raising a hand in their defense, wave after wave of protesters were clubbed over the head, kicked in the groin, and beaten. Headlines around the world reported the bloodbath. An even larger mass action took place near Bombay on June 1, 1930, at the salt pans in Wadala. An estimated 15,000 people, including women and children, raided the salt pans, collecting handfuls and sackfuls of salt, only to be beaten and arrested. Ã Ã In all, about 90,000 Indians were arrested between April and December 1930. Thousands more were beaten and killed. The Gandhi-Irwin Pact Gandhi remained in jail until January 26, 1931. Viceroy Irwin wanted to end the salt-tax boycott and thus began talks with Gandhi. Ultimately, the two men agreed to the Gandhi-Irwin Pact. In exchange for an end to the boycott, Viceroy Irwin agreed that the Raj would release all the prisoners taken during the salt upheaval, allow residents of coastal areas to make their own salt, and allow non-aggressive picketing of shops selling liquor or foreign cloth. Since the Gandhi-Irwin Pact did not actually end the salt tax, many have questioned the efficacy of the Salt March. Others realize that the Salt March galvanized all Indians into wanting and working for independence and brought worldwide attention to their cause.
Tuesday, February 25, 2020
HRM and the Public Sector - Research Paper Example This paper now seeks to establish a general overview of human resources management, including its functions and its relation to public administration. This paper is being carried out in order to establish a general understanding of HRM functions, including their general applicability to corporations and to the public sector. The 20th century ushered in a period where researchers started to consider ways of establishing value through the efficient management of the workforce (Merkle, p. 3). This function started first as a transactional activity to manage payroll as well as to administer benefits. In the current globalized setting, however, where technological advancements, as well as company mergers, abound, HR is concerned with strategies on mergers, acquisitions, talent management, skill training, labor relations, industrial relations, diversity, as well as transition planning (Ulrich, p. 37). For new companies, the responsibilities of the HR are often carried out by trained professionals, and in some instances, even non-HR employees. For the larger companies, however, an entire unit or group of professionals is devoted to the management of human resources; these groups of professionals are involved in various HR duties, and they are engaged in strategic decision-making in the business (Ulrich, p. 23). In order to manage practitioners, academic institutions, professional associations, and corporations have established study programs in order to specifically meet the functions of corporations. Practitioners and academicians have also sought to engage deeper into the field of human resources based on various specific publications and research studies (Ulrich, p. 12). In businesses, the goals of human resources have been specifically described by Dave Ulrich as four-fold Ã¢â¬â first, to align HR and the organizational goals or to be a strategic partner; second, to re-engineer organizational processes or to be an administration expert.